NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 2-PDF

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 2 - .McQna Class 9 History Solution for CBSE Students And Other Students Where NCERT BOOKS Followed. High chance to ask the question in Exam Directly through NCERT Books.

These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 1 The French Revolution. Free PDF download of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science (India and the Contemporary World – I) Chapter 1 – The French Revolution. All questions given below are explained by the expert History teacher and as per NCERT (CBSE) guidelines.



NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 2-Socialism in Europe and the Russian revolution

1. What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905

answer:

Social Condition

Before 1905 the workers were a divided group. Some had close links with villages; So some were settled permanently in other cities. The workers were divided into various different classes on the basis of their skills. The division among the workers was reflected in their dress as well as in their mannerisms.

Economic Condition:

Most of the industries were the private property of the industrialists at that time. The government used to supervise the big factories. Many factories were established during the period of 1890–95 when Russia's railway network was expanded, there was a huge increase in foreign investment in the industry, coal production doubled in very short time, and iron and steel production had quadrupled. Many industries were the private property of some industrialists.

Political Situation:

There was an autocracy in Russia. Unlike other European countries, the Tsar was not subject to parliament at the time. This was the reason why the liberals in Russia campaigned to end this situation. The Socialist Revolutionary Party fought a lot for the rights of the farmers. 1905 was the same year when the incident of 'Bloody Sunday' took place. Hundreds of workers were killed, and about 400-500 workers were injured. And it was this Bloody Sunday that started a chain of events that came to be known as the Revolution of 1905.

2. How was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe before 1917?

answer:

Most of the people of Russia were agriculturists. About 85-87 percent of the Russian Empire's population lived on agriculture. This ratio was much higher than most European countries at that time. If we talk about France and Germany, then this ratio was between 40 percent and 50 percent. Farmers produced for their own needs as well as for the market, and Russia was a major exporter of grain at the time.

3. Why did tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?

answer:

After Bloody Sunday 1905 in Russia, many trade unions and factory societies were outlawed. Political activities were banned.
The Tsar dismissed the first 2 Dumas because he feared that his authority and powers might be questioned. The Third Duma was full of conservative politicians.
The king began to make decisions unilaterally during World War I without consulting the Duma, and when Russian troops were withdrawing from the war, large tracts of agriculture were burned and buildings destroyed on the orders of the Tsar. . Lakhs of soldiers were also killed in this battle.
Most of the former population were farmers, and land ownership was under the control of a few private individuals. All these factors led to the rise of the revolution and the downfall of the Tsar autocracy.

4. Make two lists: one with the main events and effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who each was involved in, who were the leaders, and what impact each had on Soviet history.

answer:

Following are the main events of the February Revolution:

In February 1917, there was an acute shortage of food items in the workers' quarters.
A factory on the right bank was locked down on 22 February. Due to this the workers of fifty factories called for a strike and women played the most important role in these strikes. This day is known today as International Women's Day.
On 25 February the government suspended the Duma.
On February 27, the protesting people ransacked the police headquarters. Many people were demonstrating, and were shouting slogans of bread, wages, better hours and democracy.
The Petrograd Soviet was formed.
The Tsar resigned on 2 March and the monarchy was formed in February 1917.
Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a provisional government to run the country for some time.
Effects of February Revolution:

The ban on public gatherings and unions was lifted.
'Soviets' such as the Petrograd Soviet were established everywhere, although no common system of election was followed.
The number of trade unions increased.
In industrial areas, factory committees were formed to question the way industrialists ran their factories.
Military committees were formed in the army.
The influence of the Bolsheviks continued to grow, and the Provisional Government saw its power dwindling.
Land committees were formed to handle the redistribution of land, which was a popular demand of the peasants and their socialist revolutionary leaders in the rural areas.
Main events of the October Revolution:

As the conflict between the Provisional Government and the Bolsheviks escalated, Lenin feared that the Provisional Government would establish a dictatorship. Lenin started the discussion for a rebellion against the government. The army, Soviet and Bolshevik supporters in the factories were brought together. On 16 October 1917, Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power. A Military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by the Soviets under Leon Trotsky to organize the seizure. The rebellion started on 24 October 1917. Soldiers loyal to the government seized the buildings of two Bolshevik newspapers. Pro-government troops were sent to capture the telephone and telegraph offices and guard the Winter Palace. In retaliation, the Military Revolutionary Committee ordered its supporters to seize government offices and arrest the ministers. One ship named the Aurora bombed the Winter Palace, other ships descended from the Neva and captured various military positions. By the end of the month, the city was in control of the committee and the ministers had resigned. By December, the Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow-Petrograd region.

Effects of the October Revolution.

Industries and banks were nationalized by November 1917; The government took over the ownership and management.
Land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to confiscate the lands of the nobility.
In cities, the Bolsheviks enforced the division of large houses according to family needs.
The old title of aristocrat was banned.
New uniforms were designed for the army and officers.
The Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks).
The Bolsheviks conducted elections to the Constituent Assembly; However, they failed to secure a majority. The Assembly rejected the Bolshevik measures and Lenin rejected the Assembly.
The All-Russian Congress of the Soviet Union became the country's parliament. Russia became a one-party state.
Trade unions were placed under the control of the party. The Secret Police punished anyone who criticized the Bolsheviks. Many young artists and writers continued to support the party, as it stood for socialism.
Many experiments were done in art and architecture. But many were unhappy because of the censorship.

  1. What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?

answer:

Industries and banks were nationalized by November 1917; The government took over the ownership and management.
The land was declared as a social property and the peasants were allowed to seize the lands of the nobility.
In cities, the Bolsheviks enforced the division of large houses according to family needs.
The old title of aristocrat was banned.
New uniforms were designed for the army and officers.
The Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks).
The Bolsheviks conducted elections to the Constituent Assembly; However, they failed to win a majority, the assembly rejected the Bolshevik measures and Lenin dismissed the assembly.
The All-Russian Congress of the Soviet Union became the country's parliament. Russia became a one-party state.
Trade unions were placed under party control, with the secret police punishing anyone who criticized the Bolsheviks. Many young artists and writers continued to support the party as it stood for socialism.
Many experiments were done in art and architecture. But many artists were unhappy because of the censorship.

  1. Write a few lines to show what you know:

Kulakshi

answer:

Stalin believed that wealthy farmers were hoarding grain to gain more profit.
When the towns faced acute shortage of food grains, the kulaks were held responsible for this.
Stalin thought it was necessary to eliminate them so that the farms could be modernized.
the duma

answer:

In 1905, the Tsar allowed the creation of an elected advisory parliament, or Duma. The Tsar dismissed the First Duma within 75 days and was re-elected to the Second Duma within three months. The Tsar did not want anyone to question his authority or diminish or diminish his powers. The Tsar changed voting laws and packed the Third Duma with conservative politicians. Liberals and revolutionaries were excluded.

Women activists between 1900 and 1930

answer:

Their wages were less than the wages of men.
They constituted 31% of the factory workers.


liberal

answer:

He considered all religions equal.
He believed that only men who had property had the right to vote
They wanted an elected form of parliamentary government.


Stalin's mass program.

answer:

He started this program in 1929. He believed that the program would help improve the supply of grain.

All the farmers were forced to cultivate in collective farms called 'Kolhoj'.
On the contrary, it worsened the food supply situation.
Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Summary
Chapter 1 - Indian and Contemporary World-I of NCERT Social Science History Textbook is titled 'Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution. Some of the important political traditions of the nineteenth century and how they influenced change in European society will be discussed. . Through the revolution in Russia, socialism became one of the most important and powerful ideas to shape society in the twentieth century.

Students will also get to know about the following topics:

  1. The era of Social Change

Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives
Industrial Society and Social Change
The advent of socialism in Europe
support for socialism

  1. Russian Revolution

Russian Empire in 1914
economy and society
socialism in Russia
A Turbulent Time: The Revolution of 1905
World War I and the Russian Empire

  1. February Revolution in Petrograd

after february
Revolution of October 1917

  1. What changed after October?

civil war
socialist society
Stalinism and collectivism

  1. The Russian Revolution and the Global Impact of the Soviet Union







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