NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 4 PDF

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 4 | NCERT Solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 4 | NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 4 Pdf | Class 6 History Chapter 4 Notes

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 4

We have to read about our old cities like Mohenjodaro and Kalibangan in Chapter 4 NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 4 of Class 6th. We have to read about Mohenjodaro, the most bizarre and most beautiful city of that time, known as the Indus Valley Civilization. This chapter is very exciting and full of knowledge.
When you study this chapter, you will feel as if you are watching a movie or a drama. If you have not seen Mohenjodaro movie yet and if you have time now then I feel that you should study this chapter only after watching Mohenjodaro's movie first.
When you will watch Mohenjodaro's movie then you will be able to feel everything that you will read in this chapter NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 4.

  • NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 4

You will read in this chapter

  • About 150 years ago, when the railway line was being laid in Punjab, the engineers involved in this work suddenly found the Harappan site which is in modern Pakistan.
  • Engineers uprooted thousands of bricks from the ruins of Harappan in search of good bricks. Many buildings were completely destroyed by this.
  • Harappan cities have been found in the Punjab and Sindh provinces of modern Pakistan and in the Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab provinces of India.
  • Harappan sites were first discovered. Archaeologists discovered this site about 80 years ago. Since this city was the first to be discovered, the buildings and things found in all such later sites are called buildings and things of Harappan civilization.
  • This city was built about 4700 years ago.
  • In all these sites, archaeologists have found unique objects, such as red earthenware vessels with black paintings on them, stone weights, seals, beads, copper tools, and long stone blades, etc.
  • In the Harappan cities, the people who were engaged in the planning of the special buildings of the city were the rulers here. These rulers used to send people to get metals, precious stones and other useful things from far and wide. Therefore, rulers and townspeople also used to do business here.
  • Apart from the ruling class, clerks and craftsmen also lived in the cities. The clerks used to write only on the 'seals' and probably on other things as well.
  • Craftsmen (male and female) used to make different types of things in their homes or at an industrial site.
  • Generally, chert stone was used for making weights in Harappan cities and not limestone. These were probably made to weigh precious stones and metals.
  • Carnelian stone was used in the manufacture of beads. Beads were made by cutting and carving stones. Holes were made between them so that a garland could be made by inserting thread.
  • A stone idol of an important person was found from Mohenjodaro. In this she is shown wearing embroidered clothes.
  • Archaeologists have found many things from Harappan sites. Most of them were made of stones, conch shells, metals like copper, bronze, gold and silver.
  • These finds show that gold and silver were used to make ornaments and utensils.
  • Tools, weapons, ornaments and utensils were made from copper and bronze.
  • The people of Harappan civilization used to make stone seals. Images of animals are usually found on these rectangular seals.

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 4

  • Most of the items were manufactured by trained experts. These specialists were trained to make special things, such as carving stones, polishing pots or mosaicing on seals.
  • The people of the Harappan civilization used to make beautiful red clay pots designed in black.
  • The upper parts of these utensils were painted red and in the lower parts various types of painting were done with black paint.
  • Beads, bangles, earrings and small utensils were made from faience in the Harappan period.
  • Stones and conch shells are found naturally, but faience is created artificially. The powders of sand or crystal stones mixed with gum were used to make objects from them. After that a smooth coating was applied to those objects. The color of this smooth layer was usually blue or light sea green.
  • The people of Harappan civilization used to import copper from present day Rajasthan. Copper was also imported from the West Asian country of Oman.
  • During this period tin was imported from modern-day Iran and Afghanistan.
  • Here gold was imported from modern Karnataka and precious stones were imported from Gujarat, Iran and Afghanistan.
  • People lived in villages as well as in cities. Among them, farmers and shepherds were prominent. These people used to give food items to the rulers, writers and artisans.
  • The Harappans grew wheat, barley, pulses, peas, paddy, sesame and mustard.
  • The use of plow (for plowing) was a new phenomenon. These plows were made of wood. So they could not survive but plow-shaped clay toys have been found from here.
  • Rainfall is less in this area, due to which sufficient water for irrigation was not available from rain. Here people would have stored water for irrigation and would have irrigated crops if needed.
  • The Harappan site is located on the banks of the Ravi river, a tributary of the Indus, and Mohenjodaro on the banks of the Indus river.
  • Whereas Kalibanga is situated on the banks of the Ghaggar river and Lothal is situated on the banks of Bhogwa river, a tributary of Sabarmati.
  • Dholavira city of Harappan civilization was situated on the banks of Khadir Bet in the area of ​​Kutch in Gujarat. Here clean water was available and the land was fertile.
  • Dholavira is the fourth largest city in the Indian subcontinent and the largest Harappan city in India.
  • Where the other cities of the Harappan civilization were divided into two parts, the city of Dholavira was divided into three parts.
  • High stone walls were built around each part of it. There were big entrances to go inside it.
  • public here, open ground for events.
  • In some of the remains found here, large letters of Harappan script have been found inscribed in stones. These inscriptions were probably inlaid in wood. This is a unique relic, as Harappan inscriptions are usually found on small objects such as seals.
  • The city of Lothal of Harappan civilization is located in the state of Gujarat. This city was situated at such a place where raw material like precious stone was easily available.
  • It was an important center of stone, conch shells, and metal objects.
  • Lothal is situated on the banks of a tributary of the Sabarmati River (Bhogwa River) and not on the banks of the Mahi River.
  • There was a port here, where a pond was made to stop the ships coming by sea. Ships were loaded and unloaded from this pond.
  • There was also a storehouse here. Many seals and stamps have been found from this storehouse.
  • A building has been found here where bead making was done. Stone pieces, semi-finished beads, bead-making tools, and finished beads have also been found here.
  • Harappan seals were used to mark boxes and bags of goods that were sent from one place to another.
  • After closing the bags, their mouths were sealed with wet clay. The impression of the seal itself is called seal or stamping. If the mark had not been broken, it would have been proved that the goods had not been tampered with.
  • About 3900 years ago there was a big change in the Harappan civilization. Suddenly people left the cities. The use of writing, seal, and weights stopped. In Mohenjodaro, heaps of garbage started piling up on the streets. Raw material imports decreased. The drainage system was destroyed and slum houses were built on the streets.
  • This was the period of the fall of Harappa. Various scholars have given their opinion regarding the reasons for this. These include the drying up of rivers, the destruction of forests due to the need for fuel to cook bricks and the fodder needs of large herds of cattle, and the loss of control of the rulers, all three reasons are included. These views have been given by different scholars with different arguments.
  • Whatever happened, the effect of the change is clearly visible. The settlements of Sindh and Punjab in modern Pakistan were destroyed. Many settled in new settlements in the areas of the East and South.
  • About 1400 years after this (about 2500 years ago) new cities developed.

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